Recently I was posed this question by a media personality in Ireland and asked to write my comments for an upcoming Q+A TV show on this topic. Hereâ€™s my personal view …
The Western education system teaches students to be logically irrational rather than creatively rational.Â We teach our children toÂ debate and defend their viewpoints rather than to escape and find even better ones.Â We teach our kids to lock themselves defensively inside the squareÂ rather thanÂ take an innovative leapÂ outside the square.Â This makes them very slow thinkers.
Of course, in spite of all this, there are always a few exceptions and, depending on our mood, we either sing their creative praises or we single them out for judgement and correction. Interestingly, there are deep historical reasons for why we do this in our schools and in Western culture a lot can beÂ traced back to Plato’s thoughts about the concept of TRUTH.Â There are basically two strategies when it comesÂ to TRUTH: defence or search.
Pre-enlightenment thinking was about the DEFENCE of truth. “There is only one truth”,Â “I-am-right-and-you-are-wrong”, “God is on our side”, “Do what we say, or else”,Â “We know better than you because we have authority and rank”, “Our truth is the right truth”, “We have THE TRUTH so stop looking elsewhere. Just do as you’re told”. “Kill the infidel”. etc.
This authoritarian approach to ownership and defence of THE TRUTH got going in a big way after St Thomas Aquinas embedded a somewhat distorted view ofÂ Plato’s thinking into the Church at a time when the first universities were being set up. And, later when the European education system was being disseminated around the world by Roman-controlled missionaries, this Greco-Roman logic became the basic cognitive operating system for all of Western education.
In Australia, Greco-Roman Logic was imported hereÂ about 200 years ago along with rabbits and various other European delights. Even today, our children are still taught the ‘right/wrong’ system of sorting information. “This-is-right-and-that-is-wrong”. Logic is somewhat useful for sorting out the past but totally inadequate for designing much safer and more productive futures. We have come to call thisÂ kind of Greco-Roman Logic, ‘inside the square’ thinking.
So what do we see? We see grown-ups deeply trapped in irrational logic in business, in economics, in ourÂ legal system and in our parliament. In Canberra, for example, all theÂ adults on one sideÂ of the House say “We-are-right-and-you-are-wrong”. Meanwhile, all the adults on the other side of the House say, “No. We-are-right-and-you-are-wrong”. Many of these members of the parliament are highly educated people; lawyers, journalists, business people and teachers. Watching it all on TV can be a most cringing experience. Electors in Australia are deeply dissatisfied with the performance in Canberra and are leaving the established political parties in droves.
Yet there is another strategy for TRUTH other than it’s mere logical defence.Â Since The Enlightenment we now have the innovative and scientific SEARCH for truth.
To encourage this strategy I use the formula: escape + search = think. If we can first escape from the righteousness of historical or traditional or authoritarian truths we can then search, experiment, and designÂ muchÂ better truths. This is an ongoing and never-ending process.
Science offers us the search for much better truths than we currently have and we have developedÂ very powerful tools to assist us in this search.Â Post-Enlightenment we now have The Scientific Method. We also have Darwinian Thinking. We have the use of evidence. We have the technology for observation and measurement. We have the forensic power of questions. “Why is this so?”, “What is the evidence?”, “What other possible explanation could apply?”, “How do you know?”, “What else have you tried”, “Give me ten other options”, “What are ten other possible explanations?, “Who is doing this differently?”, “How can we make this faster?”, “Why not do an experiment in order to see what happens?” etc. We often call this kind of thinking,Â ‘outside the square’.
It’s been my experience that although many highly educated Western people do know aboutÂ The Enlightenment and mightÂ even be able to write a short essay on it, they are still very much pre-Enlightenment logical thinkers. Curiously, this is not the case in China. My experience thereÂ is thatÂ most highly educated Chinese people are post-Enlightenment thinkers and this is givingÂ themÂ a big advantage over their Western competitors. It will be interesting to see how this unfolds in the next decade.
In short, Western education has been about teaching kids to learn and logically DEFEND THE TRUTHÂ (as revealed by their teachers)Â rather than giving them the thinking tools to discover much better truthsÂ through searching andÂ measurement.
Evidence of this is in the type questions that teachers ask their students in school. There areÂ closedÂ questions that seek a correct answer. e.g. When was the Magna Carta signed? There are open or authentic questions where the teachers can provide an opportunity for the student to do some fresh thinking. e.g. What might have happened if the Magna Carta was never signed?
In one Harvard study of a large group of the top teachers in the US, the teachers were askedÂ toÂ estimate how many authentic questions that they had asked their students in the first semesterÂ of that year. The shocking results were: less than 1!!