It is a shameful and disappointing fact that two official biographies of Edward de Bono have been published in Australia (one by an English author and one by an Australian author) yet BOTH stories conceal the true story of The Edward de Bono School of Thinking which was co-founded by an Australian working in partnership for 7 years with Edward de Bono himself!

This omission is not only unprofessional but is also a pity for Australian readers because this ‘secret’ story is not only colourful and interesting in itself but is foundational to the biography of Edward de Bono and the story of ‘teaching the world to think’. To hide this story is to wilfully mislead the public record.

Today, this story is out of the closet. It was commissioned by the School of Thinking and written under contract from the point 0f view of an SOT student and was based on interviews with three of the four co-founders, Michael Hewitt-Gleeson, Eric Bienstock and Alexandra Noble. The fourth co-founder, Edward de Bono, was invited to participate but did not do so. You can read it by clicking here.

In New York on 17 November 1979, Michael Hewitt-Gleeson and Edward de Bono founded The Edward de Bono School of Thinking in the USA. Shortly after that, Eric Bienstock and Janie Noble also became Founding Directors. These four directors were the primary stewards and builders of SOT during the first five years of The Edward de Bono School of Thinking from 1979 to 1984.

From the first meeting in New York, EDBSOT went on to establish the Learn-To-Think Project which was to reach over 60 million people and become the biggest program in the world ever to teach thinking skills to education, business and public sectors.

From 1979, under Dr Hewitt-Gleeson’s direction–using its famous stopwatches and bells–the School of Thinking trained many thousands of people around the US and also installed thinking skills into school districts, corporations and government organisations. By 1984 ‘teaching thinking’ in US schools had become, according to the New York Times, the biggest new trend in education.

PAUL MACCREADY JR, Inventor of the Gossamer Albatross and father of man-powered flight (1982):

“When first watching an SOT thinking class in action I was amazed that something so simple and so much fun could be so quick and effective in developing a person’s ‘thinking muscle’. We all, as individuals and caretakers of our precious earth, need these thinking skills.”

What was the true origin of the “thinking caps idea for teaching thinking skills”?

1. In New York in 1983 The Edward de Bono School of Thinking Inc pioneered the ‘thinking caps method of teaching thinking skills’ and began disseminating the idea. The first publication of the idea was in a New York Times syndicated column about the School of Thinking which was published in 30 newspapers in the USA entitled, It’s time to put on your thinking caps” (April 1, 1984).

This fact and all the facts stated in this case are supported by documentary evidence and third-party corroboration secured with SOT’s Melbourne and New York lawyers.

2. The School of Thinking created the six thinking caps strategy to help thinkers to escape from their current thinking patterns. This method is now used widely around the world.

3. In August 1984, as a result of a dispute over intellectual property rights, Edward de Bono and The Edward de Bono School of Thinking Inc (incorporated in the State of New York) became legally separated.

4. The following year, in London 1985, Edward published an unauthorised version of Six Thinking Hats in which he lifted the original School of Thinking idea by making just a few minor changes.

5. In his book De Bono changed School of Thinking Caps and Headbands to ‘thinking hats’. He then switched the definitions of the ‘blue’ and ‘green’ ones around. That’s all! There are no other significant innovations in ‘his’ book.

6. In his book he took full credit for the idea and failed to attribute The Edward de Bono School of Thinking, Inc. as the owners and originators of the IP of the ‘Thinking Caps Method for teaching thinking’. This was not only an illegal act but also a serious academic misrepresentation.

7. After many requests from the School of Thinking and repeated assurances from Edward that he would rectify this, he has still failed to do so.

8. In the Preface of a recent edition of Six Thinking Hats Dr de Bono acknowledges that, “The Six Thinking Hats method may well be the most important change in human thinking for the past 2300 years”.

8. For the record, and for those who are interested in such things, here is the original transcript of the ‘School of Thinking Caps’ idea which was designed in a series of meetings in September 1983 between directors of The Edward de Bono School of Thinking, Inc in New York and in London.

9. Both audio and written records were kept of these meetings in September 1983. The following transcript is taken, word-for-word from these original records:



Put on your thinking cap. Which one? If you play-act being a thinker then you will become a thinker. There are many different sorts of thinking.

At each moment you should know what sort of thinking you are using. So you put on the thinking cap that fits the occasion.

(The caps are sold in sets of six. Each is of a different colour and each bears the logo of the School of Thinking. Instead of caps elasticised head bands could be used.)

Information. Facts and figures. When you are wearing the white cap you just give neutral information. You are a sort of library. Just get the facts out. Give all the information you can on the matter.

Negative. Why it is wrong. What is wrong with it. Why it won’t work. Why it is not true. Why you do not believe it or do not agree with it. Note that if you simply do not like something then that comes under another hat.

Being positive. Plus. Yellow for sunshine. Build on the idea. Be constructive. Use the idea. Show its good points. Be enthusiastic.

This is the emotional hat. Feelings. Just say what you feel about the idea without bothering to explain. You hate the idea. You love the idea. Feelings and values. What your instinctive reaction happens to be. Be emotional.

This is cool and laid back. This is detached and objective. Here you are organising your thinking about the matter. Green is for focusing your thinking. For giving instructions to yourself and others. Green is neutral. You can be exploring the subject through the use of deliberate thinking tools.

This is for ‘blue-sky’ or creative ideas. The ideas do not have to be sensible or logical. You can use provocations. You can try things out. Wild and crazy ideas are allowed. The purpose is to have new ideas. Blue also allows ‘interesting’ comments about the idea. Observations of interest even if they do not follow the main track of the thinking.

So put on your thinking cap. Ask someone else to put on their thinking cap. When you have chosen your cap then think only according to that cap’s colour. In this way you come to use your thinking as a skill: using whatever type of thinking you want. On whatever occasion. So you become a thinker.

Copyright © 1983 New York.

Edward de Bono School of Thinking, Inc.

All rights reserved.

10. Twenty-four years later, in 2007, the School of Thinking created the seventh thinking cap, the Grey Hat for Wisdom. See: The 7th Hat – The Grey Hat for Wisdom

– How does a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) make a strategic business decision?

– How does an executive form an opinion on the balance between a return on an allocation of resources and the potential risk involved?

– How do bankers or investors decide to invest their capital and how do they weigh up the balance between the hoped for Return On Investment (ROI) and the possible loss of their capital?

– How do they ‘see’ a business? On what basis is their ‘perception’ of the business formed? What model do CEOs use to get a map of a business in their mind?


Medieval Measurement
Amazingly, most of today’s investment and business decisions are still based on an invention that has not yet been updated for over 500 years!

In Venice in 1494, a Franciscan monk and collaborator of Leonardo Da Vinci, Fra Luca Pacioli, invented double-entry bookkeeping and published the world’s first textbook on accounting principles and practice. Ever since, this has been the basis of investment decisions. Double-entry bookkeeping shows a map of how money and goods flow through a business.

This allowed investors and business people to ‘see’ a business, evaluate risk and return and then form an opinion on whether or not to make an investment.

In those days and even on through the industrial revolution, a business consisted of things. Things are tangibles like property, buildings, inventories, cash in the bank and so on. So the double-entry bookkeeping system seemed like a useful way of organising one’s view of the ebb and flow of these tangibles and one simply accepted this way of looking at things and then went on to make one’s investment decision.

That was then, this is now. Since the knowledge and information revolutions, it’s hard to imagine how young business people could be misled more than to be given the impression that this is what today’s businesses are still made up of – tangibles. Yet we find that in business colleges and MBA programs around the world the medieval measurement, the ‘double-entry’ view of a business, is still being taught as though it were enough.

In the 2000s we already have computers that can do more than 100 billion computations a second and we are still using pre-Newtonian physics to make our business decisions. In the next few years, this will have to change.

Knowledge-Based Companies
In knowledge-based companies like Apple and Google what does the traditional accounting system capture? Hardly anything.

The old accounting system is blind to knowledge-based assets and is often limited to just considering labour and material costs. In today’s fastest-growing, market-responsive businesses the cost components of many products are intellectual capital like R&D and customer-service.

As clever companies increasingly recognise their intellectual assets, they will increasingly direct their attention to developing those assets. When it comes to productivity, two heads are always better than one and that means networking – intranets, extranets and the Internet. It means the messaging on Facebook and Twitter and the other emerging cognocracies.

Intellectual Capital (IC)
These ‘far-seeing enterprises’ will be exploiting, managing and measuring the primary ingredient of their economic performance, their intellectual capital or IC as it is now being called. The intangible IC assets of information, knowledge and skill will be formalised, captured and leveraged to produce higher-valued assets, higher performance and a more profitable enterprise.

Also, hi-tech manufacturing companies of today and tomorrow will derive most of their value-added from knowledge and skill. This will have to be accountable. Those businesses that are not accounting for their IC assets will be under-valued and left behind. Those that do will more than double their assets and move ahead.

ICD and Investing in People
In business, people are now becoming more important than money. IC is becoming the most valuable asset of many corporations. IC accounting is how a modern business gets a more accurate view of its people assets when knowledge is its chief resource.

Suppose you are an investor. You can form a more useful and realistic perception of companies like Google by accounting for their ‘soft’ IC assets than you can by merely accounting for their ‘hard’ assets like their office buildings, cash and equipment.


FACT: The value of the tangible (money) assets on today’s balance sheet is exceeded many times by the value of the IC (people) assets of the enterprise.

FACT: The intellectual capital of the enterprise is the raw material from which all financial results are derived.

FACT: The intellectual capital owned by the enterprise can be measured, managed and developed along with the financial capital and tangible assets currently recorded on the balance sheet of the enterprise.